murex Shell Docs

Command Reference: set

Define a local variable and set it's value

Description

Defines, updates or deallocates a local variable.

Usage

<stdin> -> set var_name

# Assume value from STDIN, define the data type manually
<stdin> -> set datatype var_name

# Define value manually (data type defaults to string; `str`)
set var_name=data

# Define value and data type manually
set datatype var_name=data

# Define a variable but don't set any value
set var_name
set datatype var_name

Examples

As a method:

» out "Hello, world!" -> set hw
» out "$hw"
Hello, World!

As a function:

» set hw="Hello, world!"
» out "$hw"
Hello, World!

Detail

Deallocation

You can unset variable names with the bang prefix:

!set var_name

Scoping

Variable scoping is simplified to three layers:

  1. Local variables (set, !set, let)
  2. Global variables (global, !global)
  3. Environmental variables (export, !export, unset)

Variables are looked up in that order of too. For example a the following code where set overrides both the global and environmental variable:

» set:    foobar=1
» global: foobar=2
» export: foobar=3
» out: $foobar
1

Local variables

These are defined via set and let. They're variables that are persistent across any blocks within a function. Functions will typically be blocks encapsulated like so:

function example {
    # variables scoped inside here
}

...or...

private example {
    # variables scoped inside here
}

...however dynamic autocompletes, events, unit tests and any blocks defined in config will also be triggered as functions.

Code running inside any control flow or error handing structures will be treated as part of the same part of the same scope as the parent function:

» function example {
»     try {
»         # set 'foobar' inside a `try` block
»         set: foobar=example
»     }
»     # 'foobar' exists outside of `try` because it is scoped to `function`
»     out: $foobar
» }
example

Where this behavior might catch you out is with iteration blocks which create variables, eg for, foreach and formap. Any variables created inside them are still shared with any code outside of those structures but still inside the function block.

Any local variables are only available to that function. If a variable is defined in a parent function that goes on to call child functions, then those local variables are not inherited but the child functions:

» function parent {
»     # set a local variable
»     set: foobar=example
»     child
» }
» 
» function child {
»     # returns the `global` value, "not set", because the local `set` isn't inherited
»     out: $foobar
» }
» 
» global: $foobar="not set"
» parent
not set

It's also worth remembering that any variable defined using set in the shells FID (ie in the interactive shell) is localised to structures running in the interactive, REPL, shell and are not inherited by any called functions.

Global variables

Where global differs from set is that the variables defined with global will be scoped at the global shell level (please note this is not the same as environmental variables!) so will cascade down through all scoped code-blocks including those running in other threads.

Environmental variables

Exported variables (defined via export) are system environmental variables. Inside murex environmental variables behave much like global variables however their real purpose is passing data to external processes. For example env is an external process on Linux (eg /usr/bin/env on ArchLinux):

» export foo=bar
» env -> grep foo
foo=bar

Function Names

As a security feature function names cannot include variables. This is done to reduce the risk of code executing by mistake due to executables being hidden behind variable names.

Instead murex will assume you want the output of the variable printed:

» out "Hello, world!" -> set hw
» $hw
Hello, world!

On the rare occasions you want to force variables to be expanded inside a function name, then call that function via exec:

» set cmd=grep
» ls -> exec: $cmd main.go
main.go

This only works for external executables. There is currently no way to call aliases, functions nor builtins from a variable and even the above exec trick is considered bad form because it reduces the readability of your shell scripts.

Usage Inside Quotation Marks

Like with Bash, Perl and PHP: murex will expand the variable when it is used inside a double quotes but will escape the variable name when used inside single quotes:

» out "$foo"
bar

» out '$foo'
$foo

» out ($foo)
bar

Synonyms

See Also

This site is rebuilt weekly, the content is automatically generated from murex's source code. Last built on Mon Oct 19 06:12:17 UTC 2020 against commit 81299cb81299cbf18c05a5d38bdde93a5f5a3c5ff005b27. Downloadable murex binaries are also built weekly. Current version is 1.0.0000 BETA which has been verified against tests.